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To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana, while on the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories.To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, and from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a generally southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years.
Average high temperatures in January range from 0 °C (32 °F) in the southwest to −24 °C (−11 °F) in the far north.
The climate is also influenced by the presence of the Rocky Mountains to the southwest, which disrupt the flow of the prevailing westerly winds and cause them to drop most of their moisture on the western slopes of the mountain ranges before reaching the province, casting a rain shadow over much of Alberta.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province.
It is the most northerly major city in Canada, and serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada.